ROLE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES ON THE ADOPTION OF ICT IN KENYA'S PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES: A CASE STUDY OF JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY

purity awino mboya

Abstract


The concept of change management is familiar in most organisations today but how they manage change and how successful they are varies enormously depending on the nature of the business, the change and the people involved. Organisations that handle change well appear to thrive, whilst those that do not may struggle to survive. This study aimed to establish the role of change management strategies on adoption of ICT where it focused on both the academic and administrative staff. The strategies included commitment strategy, transformational leadership strategy, communication strategy and user involvement strategy. The case study research design, combined both qualitative and quantitative approaches to collect data was adopted for the study. Grades ranging from 5-14 were the basis of stratification. A listing of different cadres that use ICT in their work functions such as Lecturers, Administrators, Secretaries and Clerks from Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) central registry formed the sampling frame where a sample size of 100 respondents was drawn using the stratified random sampling technique. The target population was 1000 employees. A questionnaire containing both structured and unstructured questions was used to collect data which was analysed using SPSS. The results are presented in tables. Findings of the study revealed that to some extent, JKUAT had adopted change management strategies on adoption of ICT though not significantly. There was however a disconnect between employee commitment to the adoption of ICT vis-a-vis the exhibition of leadership in JKUAT, a significant percentage of (73%) respondents affirmed that they were indeed optimistic and committed to support the automation process while a small percentage revealed that the leadership did not model the expected behavior that would have spearheaded the entire automation process. The study also discovered that the communication and user involvement in the automation in JKUAT was very insignificant and respondents were dissatisfied with the same. In conclusion, communication and user involvement depicted the leadership as considerably deficient. The study recommends that although there is positive inclination towards commitment to support the automation, there is still need for improvement in leadership where employees should be motivated by the charismatic attributes of their leaders in the automation process or any other change process. Communication is also a vital role and a success factor for effective adoption of ICT and therefore JKUAT should form a guiding team which can communicate the change initiative. The leadership in JKUAT should also fully adopt user involvement strategies in the automation process. This will help achieve success in adopting ICT.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Acosta, F.R. (2004). Information Technology Strategic Plan of Olivarez College unpublished doctoral dissertation, Philippines: University of Baguio

Adogbji, B., & Akporhonor, A. B. (2005). The Impact of ICTs (internet) on Research and Studies; The Experience of Delta State University Students in Abraka Nigeria. Library HiTech News. 1 (10), 17-21.

Amoroso, P.F. (2002). The Impact of Principals’ Transformational Leadership Behaviors on Teacher Commitment and Teacher Job Satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University, South Orange: NJ.

Asllani, Arben & Ettkin Lawrence (2007). An Entropy-based approach for measuring project uncertainty Academy of Information and Management Sciences Journal; 10(1), 31

Avison, D. E.,Fitzgerald, G. (2003). Information Systems Development: Methodologies, techniques and tools (2nd edition). Maidenhead, UK: McGraw-Hill

Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F., & May, D. (in press). Unlocking the Mask: A Look at the process by which Authentic Leaders Impact Followers’ Attitudes and Behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly.

Avolio, B.J. (1999). Full Leadership Development: Building the vital forces of organisations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Avolio, B.J. & Bass, B.M. (1999). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational & Organisational Psychology, 72 (4), 441-462

Balanskat, A., Blamire, R., & Kafal, S. (2007). A Review of Studies of ICT Impact on Schools in Europe, European Schoolnet.

Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (2001). Shatter the Glass Ceiling: Women May Make Better Managers. In K. Grint (Ed). Leadership: Classical, contemporary, and critical approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.

BECTA (2003). What Research Says about Barriers to the Use of ICT in Learning. Retrieved from www.becta.org.uk/research.

Bhattacharya, I. & Sharma, K. (2007), 'India in the knowledge economy – an electronic paradigm', International Journal of Educational Management 21 (6), 543-568.

Bigum C. (2000). Solutions in Search of Educational Problems: Speaking for Computers in Schools. [Electronic Version] Educational Policy, 12 (5), 586-596.

Bingi, P., Sharma, M., Godla, J., (1999). Critical Issues Affecting an ERP Implementation, Information Systems Management, 16(3), summer 1999.

Blackburn,J.,Scudder, G. and Van Wassenhove, L.N.2000. Concurrent Software Development. Communications of the ACM.43(11) , 200-214.

Burke, W. (2002). Organization change: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Chen, C. -H. (2008). Why do teachers not practice what they believe regarding technology integration? The Journal of Educational Research, 102(1), 65-75.

Chiemeke, & Longe. (2007). Information communication Technology in Nigeria: Prospecta, Challenges and Metrics. Asian Journal of Information Technology, 45, 12-19.

Cholin, V. S. (2005). 'Study of the application of information technology for effective access to resources in Indian university libraries', The International Information & Library Review 37(3), 189-197.

Dahlbom, B. and F. Ljungberg (1998). "Mobile Informatics." Scandinavian Joumal of

Information Systems 10(1/2), 227-234.

Daly F, Teague P and Kitchen P (2003). Exploring the role of internal communication during organisational change, Corporate Communications, 8(3), 153-162

Damodaran, L. (1996). User Involvement in the systems design process – a practical guide for users. Behaviour & Information Technology, 15(6), 363 – 377.

Denning, S. (2005). Transformational Innovation. Strategy and Leadership, 33(3), 11–16.

DiFonzo N, Bordia P and Rosnow RL (1994). Reining in rumors, Organizational Dynamics, 23, 47-62

DiFonzo N and Bordia P (1998). A tale of two corporations: managing uncertainty during organizational change, Human Resource Management, 37(3/4), Fall/Winter, 295-303

Douglas III, Edward E. (2003). Effective Management of Project Change Orders‟ AACE International Transactions, PM111

Easterly, W. and Levine, R. (2001). It’s not factor accumulation: Stylized facts and Growth Models. World Bank Economic Review, 15(2), 177–219.

Esteves, J., Pastor, J. (2000). Towards the Unification of Critical Success Factors for ERP Implementations. 10th Annual BIT conference, Manchester.

Farrell, G. (2007). ICT in Education in Kenya. Survey of ICT and education in Africa:

Kenya Country Report. Retrieved from www.infodev.org on 17/07/2011

File, J. (2000). A comparative perspective on leadership and institutional change. In N. Cloete, I. Bunting & T. Kulati. (Eds.). Leadership and institutional challenges in higher education. Pretoria: Centre for Higher Education Transformation.

Hammoud, Mohamad Saleh. (2008). Assessing Project Success: “Comparing Integrated Change Management and Change Management” Doctoral Dissertation, Northcentral University, USA

Hartwick, J., Barki (1994). Explaining the Role of User Participation in Information System Use. Management Science, 40(4), 440-465.

Harrison, A. (2002). Case study research. In D. Partington (Ed.), Essential skills for management research 158-180. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Heeks, R. (2002). Information Systems and Developing countries: Failure, success, and localimprovisations.http://www.fes.uwaterloo.ca/crs/plan674d/isysanddcountries.pdf edn. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.

Herscovitch, L., & Meyer, J. P. (2002). Commitment to organizational change: Extension of a three-component model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 474-487. 46

Ives, B. and Olson, M.(1984). User Involvement and MIS success, A review of research, Management Science, 30 (5), 586-603.

Jain, P. (2002). IT industry in Botswana: challenges and opportunities, Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 7 (1), 77-86

Kawalek, P. & Wood-Harper T. (2002). The Finding of Thorns: User participation in Enterprise System Implementation. The Data Base for advances in information systems, 33(1), 13-22.

KENET (2009). E-readiness survey of East African Universities (2008). Kenya

Education Network

Kensing, F.,Simonsen,J. and Bodker, K. (1998). MUST: A method for participatory design. Human – Computer Interaction, 13 (2), 167-198.

Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Laaria, M. (2013). Leadership challenges in the implementation of ICT in public secondary schools, Kenya, Journal of Education and Learning 2 ( 1):2013, 32-43

Legris, Paul & Collerette, Pierre. (2006). A Roadmap for IT Project Implementation: Integrating Stakeholders and Change Management Issues‟ Project Management Journal; Dec; 37(5), 64

Lewis LK (1999). Disseminating information and soliciting input during planned organizational change: implementers' targets, sources and channels for communicating, Management Communication Quarterly, 13, 43-75

Lewis, L. K., Hamel, S. A., & Richardson, B. K. (2001). Communicating change to nonprofit stakeholders: Models and predictors of implementers' approaches. Management Communication Quarterly, 15, 5-41.

Lim, C. P. & Chai, . S. (2004). 'An activity-theoretical approach to research of ICT integration 13in Singapore schools: Orienting activities and learner autonomy', Computers & Education 43(3), 215--236

Luecke, R. (2003). Managing Change and Transition. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Macharia J. and Nyakwende E. (2010). Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of Internet in higher educational institutions in Kenya. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa 1(2)2009: 1-3

Martin, R. and O. Epitropaki (2001). Role of Organizational Identification on implicit Leadership Theories (ILTS). Transformational leadership and work attitudes. Group Process Intergroup Relations, 4: 247-262.

McLagan, P. (2002). Change leadership today: Why we need to rethink change. In R. Havenga. (Ed.). Management Today, 18(7), 4 6.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management review, 1, 61-89.

Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: toward a general model. Human Resource Management review, 11, 299-326.

Meyer, J.P., Stanley, D.J., Herscovitch, L. & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). "Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences", Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, (1), 20–52.

Midida, P. K., Gakure, R. W. & Orwa, G. O. (2013). Effects of organization leadership on adoption of integrated Human Resource Management Information System for service delivery in the civil service: A case study of civil service in Nairobi. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1 (8), 1-14.

Mohammed, A. H., Altemini, M.S, & Yahya Y. (2010). Evaluating the performance of Information Technology on Strategic Planning, International Journal of Education and Development using ICT (IJEDICT).

Mugenda, O. M. and Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, Acts Press: Nairobi.

Mutula, S. (2002). The digital divide in Sub-Saharan Africa: implications for the revitalisation and preservation of indigenous knowledge systems, paper presented at the SCECSAL – 15 Conference, 15-19 April 2002, Johannesburg.

Nah, F., Lau, J., Kuang, J. (2001). Critical Factors for Successful Implementation of Enterprise Systems. Business Process Management Journal, 7(3), 285-296.

Naidu S.D., & Jasen, C. (2002). The Experience of Practitioners with Technology Enhanced Teaching and Learning [Electronic Version]. Educational Technology & Society, 5 (1), 23-34.

Northouse, Peter G. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice, (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Nyandiere, C. (2007). Increasing role of computer‐based information systems in the management of higher education institutions. In M. Kashorda, F. Acosta and C. Nyandiere (eds). ICT Infrastructure, Applications, Society and Education: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Strathmore University ICT Conference. Strathmore University Press: Nairobi.

Oakland, J.S. and Tanner, S.J. (2007). “Successful Change Management”, Total Quality. Management and Business Excellence, 18 (1-2). 1-19

Odedra, M. (1993). IT policies in the commonwealth developing countries. In: G. HARINDRANATH and J. LIEBENAU, eds, Information Technology Policies and Applications in the Commonwealth Countries. 1 edn. London: Commonwealth secretariat, 9-35.

Oliver, R. (2002). The Role of ICT in Higher Education for the 21st Century: ICT as a

change agent for education. Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: A multidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizational change. Academy of Management Review, 25, 783-794

Plomp, T.; Pelgrum, W. J. & Law, N. (2007), 'SITES2006—International comparative survey of pedagogical practices and ICT in education', Education and Information Technologies 12(2), 83-92.

Pohjola, M. (2003). The adoption and diffusion of ICT across countries: Patterns and determinants. In D. C. Jones (Ed.), New Economy Handbook (77-100). San Diego, CA: Elsevier-Academic Press.

Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Williamson, P. (2004). Design and analysis of pilot studies: recommendations for good practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10(2): 307-12.

Price, A. D. F. & Chahal K. (2006). “A Strategic Framework for Change Management”

Construction Management and Economics March, 24, 237-251

Rangaswamy, A. and S. Gupta. (2000). Innovation Adoption and Diffusion in the Digital Environment: some research opportunities.

Real, K., & Poole, M. S. (2005). Innovation implementation: Conceptualization and measurementin organizational research. In R. W. Woodman & W. A. Pasmore (Eds.), Research in Organizational Change and Development, 15, 63-134. Oxford, UK: JAI.

Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press

Schein, E.H. (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd Ed., San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sekaran, U., Bougie, R. (2010): Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Sherer, Susan A.; Kohli, Rajiv; Baron, Ayelet. (2003). Complementary Investment in Change Management and IT Investment Payoff‟ Information Systems Frontiers Sep; 5,(3), 21

Sherry, L., & Gibson, D. (2002). The path to teacher leadership in educational technology. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 2, ( 2), 178-203.

Shields, J. (1999) .Transforming Organizations, Methods for Accelerating Culture Change processes., Information Knowledge Systems Management, 1,(2), (Apr.),105-115.

Smeltzer LR & Zener ME (1992) .Development of a model for announcing major layoffs, Group and Organization Management, 17, (4), 446-472

Tee, W. (1993). ‗The Role of Beliefs in the Use of Information Technology: Implications for Teacher Education, or Teaching the Right thing at the Right Time‘, [Electronic Version] Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 2 (2), 139–153.

Tomei, L. A. (2005). Taxonomy For The Technology Domain. USA: Information Science Publishing.

Trimi, S., & Sheng, H. (2008). Emerging Trends in M-Government. Communications of the ACM , 51 (5).

Vahs, D. Koch, V. & Kielkopf, M. (2010). Innovation Generating and Evaluation: The Impact of Change Management in Innovation and International Business Growth. Business Economics. Springer.

Venkatesh, V. & David, S (2000). ―A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies,‖ [Electronic Version] Management Science, 46, 186-204.

Venkatesh, V., & Morris, M. G. (2000). Why don’t men ever stop to ask for directions? Gender, social influence, and their role in technology acceptance and usagebehavior. MIS Quarterly , 24 (1), 115-139.

Westrup, C., (2002). What's in information technology? Issues in deploying IS in organisations and developing countries. In: C. Avgerou and G. Walsham, eds, Information Technology In Context: Studies From the Perspective of Developing Countries. 1 edn. Burlington, USA: Ashgate publishing company, 96-110.

Williams, Michael D. & Williams, Janet. (2007). A change management approach to evaluating ICT investment initiatives‟ Journal of Enterprise Information Management 20 (1), 32-50

Yang, S. (2003). Teachers’ Perception of Use of Student Performance Information: Technology Acceptance Model. An Unpublished Thesis. The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 14th March 2006 from www.lib.utexas.edu/etd/d/2003/yangsk03/yangsk03.pdf#page=3

Yin, R. (2009). Case study research, design and methods (4th ed.). USA: Sage Publications.

Yuki, G. (1998). Leadership In Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Yukl, G. A. (1989). Managerial leadership: A review of theory and research. Journal of Management, 15, 251–289.

Yusuf, M.O. (2005). Information and communication education: Analyzing the Nigerian national policy for information technology. International Education Journal 6 (3), 316-321.

Zhao, Y. & Frank, KA (2003). Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective [Electronic Version]. American Educational Research Journal, 40(4), 807-840.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.