Alternative means of transport referred to as boda boda has been widely adopted in the developing countries as an alternative to the conventional buses and minibuses and as development from the non motorized two wheeler bicycles. In Kenya the industry thrived significantly after the zero rating of motorcycles below 150cc by the government in 2007. The broad objectives were to enhance transport and provide employment to the youth through the creation of transport enterprises. However, developments in the industry have revealed a myriad of negative incidences of fatal accidents leading to loss of lives and property including the motorcycles themselves which raises questions on the economic viability of the venture. This study therefore was designed to establish the determinants of successful implementation of motorcycle transport business. The specific objectives of the study were: to establish the effect of education and training on the performance of motorcycle transport business; to determine the effects of compliance to government regulations on performance of motorcycle transport business; to establish the effects of access to business support services on performance of motorcycle transport business and to find out the effects of entrepreneurial orientation on performance of motorcycle transport business. The study was conducted in Bahati Town among boda boda operators. The study adopted descriptive design to explain the interaction between the determinant variables and performance of motorcycle transport businesses. A sample of 77 motorcycle boda boda operators was selected from the population in Bahati Town using systematic random sampling technique. The study relied on primary data obtained from boda boda operators using questionnaires. After all the data was collected, the researcher conducted coding and data cleaning and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, mean, mode and standard deviation. Multiple regression analysis was then used to determine the relation between predictor variables (determinant factors) and the dependent variable (performance of motorcycle boda boda businesses). The analysis showed that training and entrepreneurial orientation had the positive (Pearson correlation coefficient =.471 and .419) and significantly influenced performance of alternative public transport. In addition, compliance with government regulations and enterprise transport support services (Pearson correlation coefficient =.098 and .419) did not significantly influence performance of alternative public transport. The study revealed that the two most significant determinants of performance of boda boda businesses were the training and the entrepreneurial orientation. Therefore the study recommends for training and increase support services for boda boda operators should not only focus on the technical and business management skills of operators but also on developing their entrepreneurial orientation as a strategy to enhance best practice, performance and growth in the sector.

Full Text:



Arosanyin, G., Olowosulu,T. and Oyeyemi, M. (2011). Employment Generation and Earnings in the Informal Transport Sector in Nigeria. International Business and Management 2(2), 139-148.

Aspen Network of Development Entrepreneurs and Village Capital (2013) Bridging the “Pioneer Gap”: The Role of Accelerators in Launching High-Impact Enterprises.

Benmaamar, M., S. Ellis and C. Dunkerley (2001): Options for improving vehicle operations in SSA: a case study in Uganda. July, DFID Transport Resource Centre Scheme (TRL).

Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1989). Empirical relationships among strategic posture environmental context variables, and new venture performance. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. In R. Bockhaus et al. (eds.) 370–382. Wellesley, MA: Babson College.

Cox P, (2010) Moving people: Sustainable transport development. London: Zed Books.

DTTAS (2013) Joint Agency Inputs on Enterprise Transport Trends and Needs. Nairobi: Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport

Edgcomb, E and Girardo, W (2012) The State of Business Development Services. FIELD, Microenterprise Fund for Innovation, Effectiveness, Learning and Dissemination. Lomdon: Aspen Institute

Ellis, A.; Cutura, J.; Dione, N.; Gillson, I.; Nanuel, C. & Thongori J. (2007). Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya: Unleashing the power of women. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Gathenya, J. & Bwisa, H (2011) Interaction between Women Entrepreneurs’ Age and Education on Business Dynamics in Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2(15) 265 -272.

Gay, L. R. (1992). Educational research. New York, NY: Maxwell Macmillan International

Gbadamosi, K (2006) The Emergence of Motorcycle in Urban Transportation in Nigeria and its Implication on Traffic Safety. Lagos: Centre For Transport Studies Department Of Geography And Regional Planning.

Georgano, G.N (2002). Early and Vintage Years, 1885-1930: The Golden Era of Coachbuilding. Mason Crest Publishers. P. 22.

Glaeser, Edward and Andrei Shleifer. 2003. The Rise of the Regulatory State. Journal of Economic Literature, 41(2): 401–425

Gravetter, R. & Forzano, S. (2003). Research Methods for Behavioural Sciences, Belmont: Wardsworth

Guest, D. (1987) Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations. Journal of Management Studies, 24: 503–521.

Hart, S. L. (1992). An integrative framework for strategy-making processes. Academy of Management Review , 17(2), 327-351.

Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., Camp, S. M. & Sexton, D. L. (2001) Strategic Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial strategies for wealth creation. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 479–491.

ILO (2003) Business Development Services for SMEs: Preliminary Guideline for Donor-Funded Interventions: A report to the Donor Committee on Small Enterprise Development. Geneva: ILO.

ITDP (2009) Best Practices on Regulation and Design for Motorized and Non-Motorized Two and Three Wheelers in Urban Traffic: Draft Final. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy

KNBS (2010) National Economic Survey, 2010. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics: Nairobi

Kodithuwakku, S. S., & Rosa, P. (2002). The entrepreneurial process and economic success in a constrained environment. Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 431–465.

Kokwaro, P., Ajowi, O. Kokwaro, E. (2013) A Competitive Forces Influencing Business Performance of Bicycle Taxis in Kisumu City, Kenya. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 4(2)719 – 728.

Kumar, A (2011) Understanding the emerging role of motorcycles in African cities A political economy perspective. SSATP Discussion Paper No. 13.Urban Transport Series

Lazonick, W & Mary O’Sullivan, M (1998) Corporate Governance and the Innovative Economy: Policy Implications, STEP Report R-03, STEP Group, Oslo, Norway, March.

Lazonick, W (2013) The Theory of Innovative Enterprise: A Foundation of Economic Analysis. University of Massachusetts: The Academic Industry Research Network.

Lee, S., & Peterson, S. (2000). Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness. Journal of World Business, 35(4), 401–416.

Luchidio M., Kahuthia-Gathu R. & Gatebe E. (2013) Impact Of Training Boda Boda Operators And Safety Status In Kakamega County, Kenya. International Journal of Advance Research, IJOAR .org Volume 1, Issue 9, 1-18.

Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.

Malmberg- Calvo C (1994) Case study on intermediate means of transport: Bicycles and rural women in Uganda, SSATP Working Paper Number 12, Sub -Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program. Washington DC: World Bank.

Manyara, C (2013) Combating Road Traffic Accidents In Kenya: A Challenge For An Emerging Economy. KESSA Proceedings2013

Masanga, T. (2010) Factors influencing the income of ‘boda – boda’ entrepreneurs in Siaya District, Kenya. Master’s Thesis, University of Nairobi.

Miller, D. & Friesen, P. H. (1983). Strategy-making and environment: The third link. Strategic Management Journal, 4, 221–235.

Mugenda, A. & Mugenda, O. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approach. Nairobi: Acts Press

Muli, N (2013) Press statement during the launch of “safety first Operations” at Transcom house on 16th July 2013. Accessed at On December 2014.

Musilimu, A., & Oluwole, A. (2014) The Level of Compliance of Commercial Motorcyclists to Traffic Rules on Urban Roads in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Researc. Vol. 4 No.3. 345 – 351.

Mutiso, W. & Behrens, R (2011) Boda boda bicycle taxis and their role in urban transport systems: Case studies of Kisumu and Nakuru, Kenya. Centre for Transport Studies: University of Cape Town,

Mwobobia, B (2013) Critical Success Factor S In The Motorcycle Bodaboda Business In Nairobi, Kenya. Master’s Thesis, University of Nairobi.

Nandwoli, F (2014) Factors Influencing Motorcycle Transport On Creation Of Employment Opportunities In Kenya; A Case Of Bungoma South Sub-County, Bungoma County. A Master Thesis, University of Nairobi.

Nassiuma, D. (2000). Survey sampling: Theory and methods. Njoro, Kenya: Egerton University Press.

Nkede, L.N. (2012) The Socio-Cultural Impact of the Introduction of Motobike Taxis in the Rural Community of Tombel, South-West Region Cameroon. Published Master Thesis, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé.

NTSA (2014) Comparative Statistics Trends For 2013 and 2014 As At 14th September 2014.The National Transport and Safety Authority: Nairobi. Available on:

O’Sullivan, M (2000) The Innovative Enterprise and Corporate Governance, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24, 4: 393–416.

Odero, W (2009) Motorcycle Injuries in East Africa: Magnitude, Risk Factors and Prevention. A paper presented RTIRN Regional Workshop, Accra, Ghana in December 2, 2009

Ogunsanya, A.A. and Galtima, M. (1993) Motorcycles in Public Passenger Transport Services in Nigeria: A Case ofYola Town. In: Ikya, O.G., Ed., Urban Passenger Transportation in Nigeria, Heinemann Education Books (Nig) Plc.,Ibadan, 195-207.

Oluwaseyi, O.S., Edward, E., Eyinda, C.A. and Okoko, Eno. E. (2014) Performance Assessment of Motorcycle Operation, as a Means of Urban Mobility in Lokoja, Nigeria. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 4, 343-354.

Oyesiku, O.K. and Odufuwa, B.O. (n.d) Gender Perspectives in Travel Behaviour of Motorcycle Passengers in Nigerian Intermediate Cities. Centre for Transport Studies, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye.

Pendell, J. and P. Hinton. 2004. Liability Costs for Small Businesses. Available at

Republic of Kenya (2007) Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), 2007). Nairobi: Government Printer.

Reynolds, Paul D., William D. Bygrave, and Erkko Autio (2004), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2003 Executive Report, accessed at on January 2015.

Runyan, R., Droge, C., & Swinney, J. (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation versus small business orientation: What are their relationships to firm performance? Journal of Small Business Management, 46(4), 567–588.

Schumpeter, J (1936) Review: The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money by John Maynard Keynes. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 31(196) 791-795.

Sonfield, M., Lussier, R., Corman, J. & McKinney, M (2001). Gender comparisons in strategic decision making: An empirical analysis of the entrepreneurial strategy matrix. Journal of Small Business Management, 39(2), 165–173.

Torres Martinez, A.J. (2001) Road Maintenance Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa: Unsolved Problems and Acting Strategies. Transport Policy, 8, 257-265.

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development), (2001) An assessment of the growth of women entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Working Paper. USA, New York.

WHO (2012 b). World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization

WHO (2012) Motorcycle-related road traffic crashes in Kenya Facts & figures. RS10 Kenya project: Nairobi

World Bank (2005) African Development Indicators 2005. New York: Oxford University Press.

World Bank (2008) Africa Development Indicators 2008/09. Washington: World Bank

Yakubu, A (2012). Determinants of Earnings among Commercial Motorcycle Operators in Kwara State, Nigeria. International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences . 2(2) 11-17.


  • There are currently no refbacks.