DETERMINANTS OF EFFECTIVE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN KAKAMEGA COUNTY

KELVIN MURUMBUTSA MALENYA

Abstract


Solid waste has become a major challenge in many countries all around the world. Municipal councils are spending significant resources in addressing this problem but due to an increase in population in urban centers resulting from rural urban migration has put a strain on the cities resources which cannot adequately cater for the ever increasing numbers. In developing countries it has been estimated that solid waste contains 50 percent organic matter 30 percent recyclable materials which essential means that 80 percent of waste can be recycled. The purpose of this study was to assess the Determinants of Effective Solid Waste Management in Kakamega County. This is because of the increasing sites of unattended waste disposal in public spaces in the county. The objective of the study were; to establish the extent to which technical factor influence effective solid waste management in Kakamega County; to establish how financial factor influence solid waste management in Kakamega County; To determine how institutional factor influence effective Solid Waste Management of Kakamega County. The target population will consist of 62 employees of Kakamega County, 40 employs from the ministry of Health and Sanitation, 16 employs from ministry of housing and 4 officials from National Environmental Management Authority. The researcher used stratified sampling method because it was the most convenient. Data collection instruments for this research were questionnaires and interviews. Validity of research instruments was established by consulting the supervisor. The researcher employed the test and retest method to establish reliability of the research instruments. The researcher used Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) to analyze data. The study found out that financial factors played a factor in effective solid waste management in Kakamega County. Technical factors such as lack of professional personnel and equipment had an association to effective solid waste management. Institutional factors such as county lack of public awareness and policy on waste reduction, lack of clear authority and sanitation rules significantly influenced effective solid waste management.  The recommendations in this research centered on determinants of effective solid waste management in Kakamega County were, strict enforcement of by-laws and policy, more budget allocation and proper waste allocation systems

Key Words: Offensive Waste Management


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adegboye K., (2006). Scavenging 2006: Making a “Lucrative” Living from a Hazardous Dump Sites. Vanguard, 28, 36.

Afroz, R. & Masud, M.M. (2011). Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Waste Management 31, 800-808.

Agunwamba, J. C. (1998). Solid waste management in Nigeria: Problems and issues.

Environmental Management, 25(2), 849-856.

Anaman, K. A., & Jair, R.M. (2000). Contingent valuation of solid waste collection services for rural households in Brunei Darussalam. The Singapore Economic Review, 45 (2), 223-240.

Babalola, A., Ishaku, H.T., Busu I & Majid, M. R. (2010). The Practice and Challenges of Solid Waste Management in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1, 384-388.

Banga, M. (2011). Household Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Solid Waste Segregation and Recycling: The Case of Urban Kampala. Zambia Social Science Journal, 2(1), 27-39.

Baud, Isa, Post, Johan & Furedy, Christine (2004). Solid Waste Management and Recycling: Actors, Partnerships and Policies in Hyderabad India. USA. Kluwer Academic Publisher.

Carson, R., Nicholas, F., & Meade, N. F. (2001). Contingent valuation: controversies and evidence. Environmental and Resource Economics, 19 (2), 173-210.

Chifamba, P. (2007). Trace metal contamination of water at a solid waste disposal site at Kariba, Zimbabwe. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 32(1), 71-78.

Division of Technology, Industry and Economics International Environmental Technology Centre Osaka/Shiga, Japan.

EEA (2001). Environmental Signals 2001. Environmental Assessment Report No 6.

Copenhagen, European Environment Agency.

Environmental News Service. (2007). Giant waste poisoning Nairobi children, environment. Environmental News Service. Available at: www.ens- newswire.com/ens/oct2007/200710-09-01.html (accessed on 12 March, 2014).

Hall, J. & Dalimier, F. (2000).Waste Management–Sewage Sludge. DGXI Study Contract B4-3040/014156/92. Brussels, European Commission.

Ikem, A., Osibanjo, O., Sridhar, M. K. C., & Sobande, A. (2002). Evaluation of ground water quality characteristics near two waste sites in Ibadan and Lagos. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 140 (1-4), 307-333.

Ikiara, M.M, Karanja A.M & Davies, T.C (2004) Collection, Transportation and Disposal of Urban Solid Waste in Nairobi.

Imam, A., Mohammed, B., Wilson D. C., & Cheeseman, C. R. (2008). Solid waste management in Abuja, Nigeria. Waste Management, 28, 468–472.

Jin, J., Wang, Z.., & Ran, S. (2006). Comparison of contingent valuation and choice experiment in solid waste management programs in Macao. Ecological Economics, 57, 430-441.

Komilis, D. P., Ham, R. K., & Stegmann, R. (1999). The effect of municipal solid waste pre-treatment on landfill behaviour: A literature review. Waste Management and Research, 17, 10-19.

Kothari, C.R. (1990). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International publishers limited.

Leedy, P.D. & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Practical Research: Planning and Design, Ninth Edition. NYC: Merrill.

Love, D., Zingoni, E., Ravengai, S., Owen, R., Moyce, W., Mangeya, P., Meck, M., Musiwa, K., Amos, A., Hoko, Z., Hranova, R., Gandidzanwa, P., Magadzire, F., Magadza, C., Tekere, M., Nyama, Z., Wuta, M. & Love, I. (2006). Characterization of diffuse pollution of shallow groundwater in the Harare urban area, Zimbabwe, in Groundwater pollution in Africa by Xu, Y. and Usher, B.H. UNEP, Gt. Britain.

Mangizvo, R. V. (2008). “Management practices at the Mucheke municipal solid waste disposal site in Masvingo City, in Zimbabwe.” Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 10, (2), 147-164.

Mato, R. R. A. M., & Kaseva, M. E. (1999). Critical review of medical waste practices in Dar-es-Salaam City. Resource Conservation and Recycling, 25(3- 4), 271-287.

McDougall, Forbes R. White, Peter R. Franke, Marina, Hindle,P., (2008). Integrate Solid Waste Management: A life cycle inventory. Chichester: Wiley.

Ministry of Information and Culture Printing Department, Lagos Nigeria, (1992). The Nigerian Urban Regional Planning Law Decree 88. Nigerian Institute of Town Planners.

Mitchell, R., & Carson, R. (1989). Using surveys to value public goods: The contingent valuation method. Resources for the future, Washington, D.C.

Mugenda, O. M. & Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, (2nd Ed.). Nairobi: Acts Press.

Napoleon, S., Momodu, K., O. D., & Joan E. D., (2011). Mitigating the Impact of Solid Wastes in Urban Centres in Nigeria. Kamla-Raj.

Ngoc, N. U., Schnitzer, H. (2009).Sustainable Solutions for Solid Waste Management in South East Asian Countries.

Okalebo, S.E., Opata, G.P., & Mwasi, B.N. (2014). An analysis of the household solid waste generation patterns and prevailing management practices in Eldoret town, Kenya. International Journal of Agricultural Policy and Research, 2 (2), 076-089.

Okonkwo, J. O. & Mothiba, M. (2004). Physico-chemical characteristics and pollution levels of heavy metals in the rivers in Thohoyandou, South Africa. Journal of Hydrology, 308, 122-127.

Orodho J, O & Kombo, M. M. (2002). Guidelines on Special Study Paper (SSP).Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Special Education.

Oyaro, K. (2003). Month after dump scare, problems persist. Inter-Press Service News Agency. (Johannesburg). 13 May 2008. www.unep.org/cpi/briefs/2008March122014

Phelan, C. & Wren, J. (2005-06). Graduate Assistants. Exploring reliability in academic assessment.UNI office of academic assessment.

Role, M. E. (2013). Handbook of social and Educational Research methods for graduate studies. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Educational Administration Curriculum and Teaching. University of Eastern Africa Baraton, Kenya.

Rotich, K. H., Zhao Y., Dong J., (2005). Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries–Kenyan case study. College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026, China.

Rotich, K. H., Zhao, Y., & Dong, J. (2006). Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries–Kenyan case study. Waste Management,

Sandec (2004). cited in Zhu et al 2007: 126, Improving Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: A source book for policy makers and practitioners.

Sierra Leone. Final Results (2006) Population and Housing Census, Statistics, Sierra Leone. Waste Management- From Wikipedia the free encyclopaedia (2009).From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_management (Retrieved on 16/03/2014).

Simon, M.K (2011). Dissertation and Scholarly Research: Recipes for success (2nd Ed.). Seattle, WA, Dissertation Success LLC.

UNEP (2002). Industry as a partner for sustainable development: Waste Management. New York: UNEP.

United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP. (2009). Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan Training Manual. Volume 2: Assessment of Current Waste Management System and Gaps therein. United Nations Environmental Programme.

United Nations Population Division (2001). World Urbanization Prospects: The 1999 Revision. Key Findings. United Nations Population Division.

Wilson, D.C., Araba, A.O., Chinwah, K., & Cheeseman, C.R. (2009). Building recycling rates through the informal sector. Waste management, 29(2), 629- 635.

Yobe State Environmental Protection Agency YOSEPA, (2009). “Liquid and Solid Waste Management in Damaturu Metropolis in the Capital of Yobe State,” Yobe Printing, Damaturu, 6, 1-14.

Zhu, Da, Asnani, P. U. & Zurbrugg, C. (2007). Improving municipal solid waste management in India: A source book for policy makers and practitioners. Herndon: World Bank Publication.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.