The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Results Based Management in Kenya’s Civil Service.
Transformational leadership is that which facilitates a redefinition of a people’s mission and vision, a renewal of their commitment and the restructuring of their systems for goal accomplishment. The Public Service Reform and Development Secretariat in Kenya seeks to transform and to build the institutional and leadership capacity in the Public Service from a process orientation to a results management culture. This study sought to understand the effects that transformational leadership had on results based management in Kenya’s civil service. The study investigated whether individualized consideration, coaching and mentoring of employees by leaders had an effect on RBM. The population of study was the staff in Kenya’s ministries that are involved in the performance contracting process. Stratified Random Sampling was used to select the sample respondents. Questionnaires were used on a “drop and pick later” basis, to collect data that was processed and analyzed descriptively and presented through tables and percentages. The findings of the research indicated that the level of results based management in the government ministries; the level of individualized consideration, coaching and mentoring; and the level of employee understanding of performance expectation in the Government Departments was low. Also, the level of employee participation in decision making and the level of employee intellectual stimulation in the Government Departments was moderate. These findings indicated that there was a need for supervisors to focus on coaching and mentoring individuals under their charge for results based management to be achieved in government ministries. Employees in government departments did not seem to understand their roles clearly, making it difficult for them to know what was to be achieved. The findings showed a cause for concern and need for more focus on the leadership and supervisory practices of managers in Government Departments.
It was recommended that the government puts in place measures to ensure the leaders appointed to head government departments were transformational to ensure achievement of results based management for provision of better services to the citizens, improved accountability for resources and restoration of citizens’ faith in the management of government affairs and concerted efforts to train leadership are made to go hand in hand with institutional reforms.
Key Words: Transformational Leadership, Result based Management
Adèr, H. J., Mellenbergh, G. J., & Hand, D. J. (2008). Advising on research methods: A consultant's companion. Huizen, The Netherlands: Johannes van Kessel Publishing.
Avolio, Bruce J. (1997). “The Great Leadership Migration to a Full Range Leadership
Development System.” In Kellogg Leadership Studies Project, transformational Leadership Working Papers, The James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership,
Barbuto, J.E. (Jnr) (2005). Motivation and transactional, charismatic, and transformational leadership: a test of antecedents. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11(4), 26-40.
Barnett, A. (2003, November). The impact of transformational leadership style of the school principal on school learning environments and selected teacher outcomes: a preliminary report. Paper presented at NZARE AARE, Auckland, New Zealand.
Barnett, K., McCormick, J. & Conners, R. (2001). Transformational leadership in schools – panacea, placebo or problem? Journal of Educational Administration, 39(1), pp. 24-46.
Bass, Bernard (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18, (3), Winter, 1990, 19-31.
Bass, B.M. (1990a). Bass & Stodgill’s Handbook of Leadership. Theory, Research and Managerial Applications (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond xpectations.New York: Free Press.
Bass, B.M. (1990b). From transactional to transformational leadership: learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 13, pp. 26-40.
Bass, B.M. (1997). The ethics of transformational leadership. KLSP: Transformational Leadership, Working Papers. Retrieved November 10th 2010, from http://www.academy.umd.edu/publications/klspdocs/bbass_pl.htm
Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Individual, military and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bass, B.M. & Avolio, B.J. (Eds.). (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Bass, B.M., Avolio, B.J., Jung, D.I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), pp. 207-218.
Bass, B.M.(2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. 4th edition Free Press
Bennis, W. (2001). Leading in unnerving times. MIT Sloan Management Review, 42, 97–102.
Botcheva L, White CR, Huffman LC, ‘Learning Culture and Outcomes Measurement Practices in Community Agencies’, American Journal of Evaluation, 2002, 23(4): 421-434
Bono, J.E. & Judge, T.A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), pp. 901-910.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Bryant, S.E. (2003). The role of transformational and transactional leadership in creating, sharing and exploiting organizational knowledge. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9(4), pp. 32-44.
Bycio, P., Hackett, R. D., & Allen, J. S. (1995). Further assessments of Bass’s (1985) conceptualization of transactional and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 468–478.
Carl-Erik Särndal; Bengt Swensson; Jan Wretman (2003). Model assisted survey sampling. Springer. pp. 9–12. ISBN 9780387406206. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
Carlson, D.S. & Perrewe, P.L. (1995). Institutionalization of organizational ethics through transformational leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 14(10), pp. 829-839.
Cashin, J., Crewe, P., Desai, J., Desrosiers, L., Prince, J., Shallow, G. & Slaney, S. (2000). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved April 3, 2011 from http://www.mun.ca/educ/ed4361/virtual_academy/campus_a/aleaders.html
Chekwa, E. (2001, July 12-14). Searching for African American transformational leaders. Academy of Business and Administrative Sciences 4th International Conference, Quebec City, Canada.
Clutterbuck, D & Megginson, D, (1999). Mentoring Executives and Directors ..
Conger, J.A. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations: an insider’s perspective on these developing streams of research. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), pp. 145-170.
Cox, Michael & Rock, E. Michael (1997): The 7 pillars of Visionary leadership: Aligning your organization for enduring success. Toronto: Dryden (Harcourt Brace &Co. Canada Cox, P.L. (2001). Transformational leadership: a success story at Cornell University. Proceedings of the ATEM/aappa 2001 conference. Retrieved March 17, 2004, from http://www.anu.edu.au/facilities/atemaappaa/full_papers/Coxkeynote.html
Crawford, C.B., Gould, L.V., & Scott, R.F. (2003). Transformational leader as champion and techie: implications for leadership educators. Journal of Leadership Education, 2(1), pp. 1-12.
Curphy, G. J. (1992). An empirical investigation of the effects of transformational and transactional leadership on organizational climate, attrition, and performance. In K.E. Clark, M. B. Clark, & D. R. Campbell (Eds.), Impact of leadership. Greensboro, NC: The Center for Creative Leadership.
Den Hartog, N.N, Van Muijen, J. &Koopman, P. (1994,July). Transactional Vs. Transformational leadership. Papers presented at the meeting of the International Congress of the Applied Psychology Madrid, Spain.
Drucker, P.F.( 1955). The Practice of Management (1954) Harper Collins books.
Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B. J., & Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 735–744.
Epitropaki,O. (Undated) . What is transformational leadership? Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield, England.
Feinberg, B.J., Ostroff, & Burke, W.W. (2005). The role of within-group agreement in understanding transformational leadership. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 471-488.
Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E. (2000). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 2nd Edition. New York. NY: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
Gellis, Z.D. (2001). Social work perceptions of transformation
Geyer, A. L. J., & Steyrer, J. M. (1998). Transformational leadership and objective performance in banks. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 47, 397–420.
Flint, M. (2002).Easier Said Than Done: A Review of Results-Based Management in Multilateral Development Institutions, UK Department for International Development (DFID), London, United Kingdom, 2002, p 50.
Gronn, P. (1996). From transactions to transformations: a new world order in the study of leadership. Educational Management and Administration, 24(1), pp. 7-30.
Hall, J., Johnson, S., Wysocki, A. & Kepner, K. (2002). Transformational leadership: the transformation of managers and associates. Retrieved August 3, 2006, from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu
Hater, J. J., & Bass, B. M. (1988). Superiors’ evaluations and subordinates’ perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 695–702.
Hesselbein, Frances, and Paul M. Cohen. (1999). Leader to Leader. San Francisco, CA:Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Hopkins, K.D. (1998). Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation. 8th Edition. Needham Heights. MA. Allyn and Bacon.
Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1993). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated business unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 7, 891–902.
Hoyt, C.L. & Blascovich, J. (2003). Transformational and transactional leadership in virtual and physical environments. Small Group Research, 34(6), pp. 678-715.
Israel, M. & Hay. I. (2006). Research Ethics for Social Scientists: between ethical conduct and regulatory compliance. London: Sage.
Judge, T.A. & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89/5, pp. 755-768.
Keller, R. T. (1992). Transformational leadership and the performance of research and development project groups. Journal of Management, 18, 489–501.
Kelly, M.L. (2003, January 1). Academic advisers as transformational leaders. The Mentor. Retrieved August 3, 2006, from http://www.psu.edu/dus/mentor/030101mk.htm
Kotter, John P. John P. Kotter on What Leaders Really Do. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.
Leithwood, K. & Jantzi, D. (2000). The effects of transformational leadership on organizational conditions and student engagement with school. Journal of Educational Administration, 38(2), p. 112.
Lussier, R.N. & Achua, C.F. (2004). Leadership: theory, application, skill development (2nd ed.). Eagan, MN: Thomson-West.
Mugenda Olive M. And A.G. Mugenda (1999), Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, African Centre Of Technology Studies, Nairobi.
Northouse, G. (2007). Leadership theory and practice (3rd ed.) Thousand Oak, London, New Delhe, Sage Publications, Inc.
Northouse, Peter G. (2001). Leadership Theory and Practice, second edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Parsloe Eric ( 1999). The Manager as a Coach and Mentor .
Podsakoff, P. M., Todor, W. D., & Skov, R. (1982). Effect of leader contingent and non contingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 25, 810–821.
Podsakoff, P. M., Todor, W. D., Grover, R. A., & Huber, V. L. (1984). Situationalmoderators of leader reward behavior and punishment behaviors: Fact or fiction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 21–63.
Results-based Management in Canadian International Development Agency ( 1999). CIDA,
Republic of Kenya office of the president public service reform and development secretariat donor/GOK consultative meeting Report April, 2005.
Rice, J.B. (1993). Transactional and transformational leadership: an analysis of male and female leadership styles in Delaware public schools. Abstract of EdD dissertation completed at Widener University, Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 3, 2010 from http://muse.widener.edu/~egr0001/Dissertations/RiceW.html
Sanders, J.E.(3rd), Hopkins, W.E. & Geroy, G.D. (2003). From transactional to transcendental: toward an integrated theory of leadership. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9(4), pp. 21-31.
Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership. Organizational Science, 4, 577–594.
Shamir, B., Zakay, E., Breinin, E., & Popper, M. (1998). Correlates of charismatic leader behavior in military units: Subordinates’ attitudes, unit characteristics, and superiors’ appraisals of leader performance. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 384–409.
Sheppard, P. (2002). Leading the turnaround: Lou Gerstner of IBM. Wharton Leadership Digest. Retrieved December 3, 2010, from http://leadership.wharton.upenn.edu/digest/02-03.shtml.
Shin, S.J. & Zhou, J. (2003). Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: evidence from Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46(6), pp. 703-714.
Simic, I. (1998). Transformational leadership - the key to successful management of transformational organizational changes. Facta Universitas, 1(6), pp. 49-55.
Sosik, J. J., Avolio, B. J., & Kahai, S. S. (1997). The impact of leadership style and anonymity on group potency and effectiveness in a GDSS environment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 89–103.
Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. (2004). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved August 3, 2006 from http://www.sedl.org/change/leadership/history.html
Stone, A.G., Russell, R.F., & Patterson, K. (2003). Transformational versus servant leadership – a difference in leader focus. Servant Leadership Roundtable – October 2003. Retrieved January 20th 2011 from http://www.regent.edu/acad/cls/2003servantleadershiproundtable/stone.pdf
Tichy, N.M. & Devanna, M.A. (1986). The Transformational Leader. New York, NY: John Wiley.
UNESCO Results-Based Programming, Management and Monitoring (2008). Guiding Principles, UNESCO Paris, Bureau of Strategic Planning, January 2008.
United Nations Development Programme-Kenya( 2008). Country Programme Action Plan of the Government of Kenya 2007/2008 Harmonized Annual Work Plan
United Nations Development Programme Country Programme Action Plan of the Government of Kenya ( 2006). Annual Work Plan
Waldman, D. A., Bass, B. M., & Einstein, W. O. (1987). Leadership and outcomes of performance appraisal process. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60, 177–186.
Waldman, D. A., Bass, B. M., & Yammarino, F. J. (1990). Adding to contingent-reward behavior: The augmenting effect of charismatic leadership. Group and Organizational Studies, 15, 381–394.
Yammarino, F.J. & Bass B.M (1990). Long term forecasting of transformational leadership
and its effects among naval officers: Some preliminary findings. West Orange, N.J.
Yates, M. (2002) Leader Values. Retrieved February 14th 2011 from
Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 285–305.
Yukl, G.A. (1989). Leadership in Organizations (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
- There are currently no refbacks.