In the developing world, there have been a number of initiatives aimed at supporting improved wood and charcoal burning cook stoves projects which have health, economic and environmental benefits. Worldwide about half of the populations’ energy consumption is dependent on traditional fuel sources including wood, charcoal, coal, and animal dung, along with traditional and inefficient stove technologies. Use of traditional inefficient cooking stoves is largely attributed to indoor air pollution from high level of smoke, deforestation caused by inefficient fuel consumption and climate change. Recent uptake adoption of improved cook stoves is slowly reversing this trend albeit slowly. To this end, understanding drivers of utilization of improved energy saving cook stoves is important. The study was be guided by the following specific objectives: To find out the influence of household characteristics on utilization of energy saving cook stoves; to investigate the influence of level of awareness on utilization of energy saving cook stoves; to examine the influence of quality on utilization of energy saving cook stoves; and to study the influence of cost on utilization of energy saving cook stoves in Kenya. The target population was 5600 households in Bomet County. The study adopted a descriptive survey of by use of a sample size of 100 respondents. A simple random sampling technique method was used and data was collected through the use of questionnaires. The secondary data was obtained from published documents such as journals, periodicals, magazines and reports to supplement the primary data. A pilot study was conducted to pretest the validity and reliability of instruments for data collection. The data was analyzed by use of both qualitative and quantitative methods with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 and excel. The correlation and regression analysis was used to establish the direction and strength of the relationship of the variables at 5% level of significance. The analysis showed that level of awareness had the strongest positive influence on utilization of improved energy saving cook stoves projects (Pearson correlation coefficient =.665 and p-value =0.005). In addition, household characteristics, stove quality and stove cost are positively correlated to effective utilization of improved energy saving cook stoves projects with Pearson correlation coefficient of .600, .587 and .555 with p-values of .008, 0.010 and 0.022 respectively. The study established that level of awareness was the most significant factor. The study recommends for similar studies to be undertaken in other counties in Kenya for generalization of the findings of this study.

Key Words: Energy Saving, Cooking Stoves, Household Characteristics, Level of Awareness, Stove Quality, Stove Cost

Full Text:



Agresti, A. and Finlay, B. (2008). Statistical Options for the Social Sciences, 4th edition (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall)

Agurto-Adrianzen, M. (2009). The role of social capital in the adoption of firewood efficient stoves in Northern Peruvian Andes. MPRA Paper No. 15918. Munich: Munich Personal RePEc Archive. mpra. ub. unimuenchen. de/15918/1/MPRA_paper_15918. pdf [accessed 1 August 2015].

Akbar, D.F. Barnes, A. Eil, G.A. (2011). Household cook stoves, environment, health, and climate change: a new look at an old problem. The World Bank, Washington, DC

Armendáriz-Arnez, C., Edwards, R. D., Johnson, M., Rosas, I. A., Espinosa, F., and Masera, O. R. (2010). Indoor particle size distributions in homes with open fires and improved Patsari cook stoves. Atmospheric Environment,44(24), 2881-2886.

Asres, K., and Bucar, F. (2002). Lippia adoensis var. adoensis: studies on the essential oil composition and antioxidant activity. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal, 20, 32-38.

Bagnoli, M. and Watts, S. (2003). “Selling to Socially Responsible Consumers: Competition and the Private Provision of Public Goods.” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy. 12 (3): 419-445.

Barnes, D.F., Openshaw, K., Smith, K.R. and Plas, van der R., 1994. What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Cookstoves: a Comparative International Review of Stove Programs, Technical Paper Number 242, World Bank.

Baron, D. P. (2001). “Private Politics, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Integrated Strategy.” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy. 10 (1): 7-45

Baron, P. 2003. “Private Politics.” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy. 12 (1): 31-66.

Bazilian, M., Cordes, L., Nussbaumer, P., and Yager, A. (2011). Partnerships for access to modern cooking fuels and technologies. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 3(4), 254-259.

Bertrand, M., and Bouchard, S. (2008). Applying the technology acceptance model to VR with people who are favorable to its use. Journal of Cyber Therapy and Rehabilitation, 1(2).

Bielecki, C., and Wingenbach, G. (2014). Rethinking improved cookstove diffusion programs: A case study of social perceptions and cooking choices in rural Guatemala. Energy Policy, 66, 350-358.

Byrne, J., Zhou, A., Shen, B., and Hughes, K. (2007). Evaluating the potential of small-scale renewable energy options to meet rural livelihoods needs: A GIS-and lifecycle cost-based assessment of Western China's options.Energy policy, 35(8), 4391-4401.

Burnett, R. T., Pope, C. A., Ezzati, M., Olives, C., Lim, S. S., Mehta, S., ... and Anderson, H. R. (2014). An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure.

Cohen, W. M., and Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative science quarterly, 128-152.

Clough, (2012). The Improved Cookstove Sector in East Africa: Experience from the Developing Energy Enterprise Programme (DEEP) GVEP International, London UK

Cordes , L. (2011). Igniting change: a strategy for universal adoption of clean cook stoves and fuels Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, New York

Currivan, D. B. (2004). Sampling Frame. Sage Encyclopaedia of Social Science Research Methods

Damte, A., and Koch, S. F. (2011). Clean fuel saving technology adoption in urban Ethiopia (No. 201109).

Ellul, J. (1964). The Technological Society, J. Wilkinson, trans. (New York: Vintage,). p. 14.

Edwards, R., and Quan, G. (2004). An assessment of programs to promote improved household stoves in China. Energy for Sustainable Development,8(3), 33-52.

Feddersen, J., and. Gilligan, W. (2001). Saints and Markets: Activists and the Supply of Credence Goods. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy. 10 (1): 149- 171.

Feenberg, A., Pippen, R. and Webel, P. (1988). Marcurse: Critical Theory and the Promise of Utopia London: Macmillan Education

Feenberg, A. (1991). Critical Theory of Technology Oxford University Press

Gebreegziabher, Z., Mekonnen, A., Kassie, M., and Köhlin, G. (2010). Household tree planting in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia: Tree species, purposes, and determinants.

Glancey, K. D., and McQuaid, R. W. (2000). Entrepreneurial economics. Palgrave Macmillan.

Gifford, R. (2010). The relations between natural and civic place attachment and pro-environmental behavior. Journal of environmental psychology, 30(3), 289-297.

Global Alliance for Clean Cook stoves (2014) Igniting Change: a Strategy for Universal Adoption of Clean Cook stoves and Fuels, Washington DC

Global Village Energy Partnership (2014). DEEP-EA Technical Factsheet – Improved cook-stoves production.

Hulley, S.B (2007). Designing Clinical Research. , p168-169.

Innes, R. (2006). “A Theory of Consumer Boycotts Under Symmetric Information and Imperfect Competition.” The Economic Journal. 116: 355-381.

Jagoe, K., Bromley, H., Dutta, K., and Bruce, N. G. (2007). Standard Monitoring Packages for Household Energy and Health Field Projects (ARTI—India). Final Report, Qualitative Findings.

Kamfor (2000). Kamfor’s Study on Kenya’s Energy Demand, Supply and Policy Strategy for Households, Small Scale Industries and Service Establishments of the year 2000

Karavai, M., and Petrichenko, K. (2015). NAMAs as a tool to deliver energy efficiency measures in buildings. ECEEE Summer Study 2015.

Kshirsagar, M. P., and Kalamkar, V. R. (2014). A comprehensive review on biomass cookstoves and a systematic approach for modern cookstove design. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 30, 580-603.

Kombo, D. K., and Tromp, D. L. A. (2006). Project and Thesis Writing: An Introduction. Pauline‟ s Publications Africa.

Kothari, C. (2009). Research Methodology Methods and Techniques.

Kumar, R. (2014). Importance of Training in Organization Development” International Research Journal of Management Sciences and Technology 5 (1): 286- 293.

Lamarre-Vincent, J. (2011). Household determinants and respiratory health impacts of fuel switching in Indonesia.

Lewis, J. J., and Pattanayak, S. K. (2012). Who adopts improved fuels and cookstoves? A systematic review. Environmental health perspectives,120(5), 637-645.

Kuuya, P. (2010). Adoption of adopted imported technology: The case of Kenya’s informal sector. Paper presented on at the expert group meeting on harnessing knowledge to achieve the millenium development goals (MDGs) organized by the economic development and Nepad division of the United Nations Economic Commisson forAfrica UNECA). Addisa Ababa, Ethiopia.

Li, Z., Sjödin, A., Romanoff, L. C., Horton, K., Fitzgerald, C. L., Eppler, A., ... and Naeher, L. P. (2011). Evaluation of exposure reduction to indoor air pollution in stove intervention projects in Peru by urinary biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites. Environment international,37(7), 1157-1163.

Lutz, S. Thomas, P. Lyon and John W. Maxwell. (2000). “Quality Leadership When Regulatory Standards are Forthcoming.” Journal of Industrial Economics. 48 (3): 331-348.

Lyon, P., and John W. (2002). Voluntary Approaches to Environmental Regulation.” Economic Institutions and Environmental Policy (pp. 75-120). Burlington (VT): Ashgate Publishing Company.

Lyon, P. and John, W. (2004). Corporate Environmentalism and Public Policy. NewYork: Cambridge University Press

Makame, M. (2007). Adoption of improved stoves and deforestation in Zanzibar. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal,18(3), 353-365.

Mobarak, A. M., Dwivedi, P., Bailis, R., Hildemann, L., and Miller, G. (2012). Low demand for nontraditional cookstove technologies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(27), 10815-10820.

Muchiri, P., and Pintelon, L. (2008). Performance measurement using overall equipment effectiveness (OEE): literature review and practical application discussion. International Journal of Production Research, 46(13), 3517-3535.

Mugenda, A. G. (2008). Social science research: Theory and principles.Nairobi: Applied.

Mujis, D. (2004). Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Noanka, I. (1994): A dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation Organization Science, 5 (1): 14-37

Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995): The knowledge creating company. How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation, New York: Oxford University Press.

Partnership for Clean Indoor Air, (2012). Test Results of Cook Stove Performance"

Pandey, F., Viviano, G., Thakuri, S., Flury, B., Maskey, R. K., Khanal, S. N., ... and Giannino, F. (2010). Energy, forest, and indoor air pollution models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal: Implementation of a participatory modeling framework. Mountain Research and Development, 30(2), 113-126.

Pizzo, A., Laganà, A. S., Sturlese, E., Retto, G., Retto, A., De Dominici, R., and Puzzolo, D. (2013). Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: embryology, genetics and clinical and surgical treatment. ISRN obstetrics and gynecology, 2013.

Raman, S., Clifford, M., and Forbes, I. (2013). Corporate-led sustainable development and energy poverty alleviation at the bottom of the pyramid: The case of the CleanCook in Nigeria. World Development, 45, 137-146.

Rai, J.U. (2009). Cookstoves and markets: experiences, successes and opportunities GVEP International

Rai, M., Yadav, A., and Gade, A. (2009). Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnology advances, 27(1), 76-83.

Ramsar Livelihoods, (2014). Livelihoods in Focus: Cooking up Change

Rehfuess, E. A., Puzzolo, E., Stanistreet, D., Pope, D., and Bruce, N. G. (2014). Enablers and barriers to large-scale uptake of improved solid fuel stoves: a systematic review. Environmental health perspectives, 122(2), 120-130.

Republic of Kenya, (1989). National Development Plan for the Period 1989 to 1993 Nairobi: The Government Printer

Roth C. (2011). Micro-gasification: Cooking with gas from biomass.GIZ HERA – Poverty-oriented Basic Energy Service.

Shamoo, A.E. and Resnik, B.R (2003). Responsible Conduct of Research. Oxford University Press.

Shepard, R. J. (2002). Ethics in Exercise Science Research. Sports Med, 32 (3): 169-183.

Simon, G.L. Bumpus, A.G. Mann, P. (2012). ‘Win–win scenarios at the climate-development interface: challenges and opportunities for stove replacement programs through carbon finance Global Environ Change, 22 pp. 275–287

Smith, K. R., Bruce, N., Balakrishnan, K., Adair-Rohani, H., Balmes, J., Chafe, Z., ... and Rehfuess, E. (2014). Millions dead: how do we know and what does it mean? Methods used in the comparative risk assessment of household air pollution. Annual review of public health, 35, 185-206.

Simon, G. L., Bailis, R., Baumgartner, J., Hyman, J., and Laurent, A. (2014). Current debates and future research needs in the clean cookstove sector.Energy for Sustainable Development, 20, 49-57.

Szulansky, G. (1996). Exploring Internal Stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic Management Journal. 1996; 17: 27-43.

Venter, D. J. L., and Neethling, A. (2012). Entrepreneurial attributes and intentions: perceptions of South African business science students. Management Dynamics: Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists, 21(3), 17-32.

Wickman, M. (2006). Fish consumption during the first year of life and development of allergic diseases during childhood. Allergy, 61(8), 1009-1015.

Winrock International, E+Co and Practical Action (2011). The Kenyan Household Cookstoves Sector: Current State and Future Opportunities, Washington DC

World Agroforestry Centre, 2014). “From Cleaner Cookstoves to Clean Cooking : Thinking beyond technology to a systems approach”

World Bank (2010). Improved Cook stoves and Better Health in Bangladesh: Lessons from Household Energy and Sanitation Programs. Washington, USA.

World Health Organization, (2009). WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care: first global patient safety challenge. Clean care is safer care. World Health Organization.

World Health Organization (2014). Global Health Observatory, Household Air Pollution

World Health Organization (2005). Indoor Air Pollution and Health: Scope of the Problem. WHO Fact Sheet No. 292. Geneva: WHO.

World Bank (1989). Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Growth. Washington, D.C

Zaheer, A., Gulati, R., and Nohria, N. (2000). Strategic networks. Strategic management journal, 21(3), 203.


  • There are currently no refbacks.