FACTORS INFLUENCING POWER SHARING SYSTEM IN SOMALI POLITICS

KAMAL HASSAN UGAS

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Although Somali people share the same religion, language and culture, unlike most African countries, one of the worst civil wars in history has destroyed their country for more than two decades. There has been lack of properly functioning government in Somalia since 1991.

This Research Project examined the key factors influencing the Political Power Sharing System in Somalia. The study also explored the effect these factors had on peace and stability in Somalia as a whole.  In the end, it highlighted the strategies that could help establish long-lasting peace, stability and properly functioning government. 

The researcher argued that external mediation, top-down peace talks and the constitution review influenced negatively the current power sharing system in Somali politics and these were the basic factors obstructing the functioning of Somali power sharing system. The way the international community was addressing the mediation in Somalia which was making the Somalis guests instead of owners, lack of bottom-up peace talks and the struggle of finding genuine representation of all parts of the Somali society including women and youth and the introduction of federalism in the constitution review at a time Somalia had not been ready for it attributed to the failure of the political power sharing system in Somalia.

Therefore, all these factors that were barrier to successful power sharing in Somalia were investigated in this study. The target population was from the five major clans in Somalia and the study was conducted in Mogadishu where all representatives could be reached. Questionnaires and interviews were used as data collection instruments and the collected data was processed and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to find answers to the long lasting conflicts in Somalia and strategies to tackle these factors.

Key Words: Power Sharing, Mediation, Peace Talks, Constitution Review, Federalism, Clan


Full Text:

PDF

References


Bakayr , M. (2007). Somalis: The Trouble with This Homogenous Society. Hiiraan Online, Retrieved 4 January, 2016, from http://www.hiiraan.com/op2/2007/july/somalis_the_trouble_with_this_homogenous_society.aspx

Bradbury, M & Healy, S. (2010). Whose peace is it anyway? Connecting Somali and International Peacemaking. ACCORD An International Review of Peace Initiatives, 1(21),51. Retrieved 22 October, 2015, from http://www.c-r.org/downloads/21_Somalia_2010_ENG_F.pdf

Burgess, M. (2012, January, 2012). Federalism in Africa. [Weblog]. Retrieved 21 December 2015, from http://ideefederale.ca/documents/Africa.pdf

Crescenzi , M. et al. (ND). A SUPPLY SIDE THEORY OF MEDIATION [Weblog]. Retrieved 19 March, 2016, from http://www.uky.edu/~clthyn2/Crescenzi.et.al.pdf

Davis, L. & Gündüz, C. (2011, October, 2011). European Forum for International Mediation and Dialogue eV (mediatEUr) . [Weblog]. Retrieved 22 December 2015, from http://www.themediateur.eu/resources/publications/item/download/15_14dab48e0d87b6c044fddc0d48aa711d

Elmi, A. (2014, January, 2014). Decentralization Options for Somalia. [Weblog]. Retrieved 7 December 2015, from http://www.heritageinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Decentralization_Options_for_Somalia-ENGLISH.pdf

Eno, M. A. (2007). Inclusive but Unequal: The Enigma of the 14th SNRC and the Four-Point-Five (4.5) Factor. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/3093759/Inclusive_but_Unequal_The_Enigma_of_the_14th_SNRC_and_the_Four-Point-Five_4.5_factor

Eno, M & Eno, O. (2011). Intellectualism amid Ethnocentrism: Mukhtar and the 4.5 Factor. Bidhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies, 9(1), 137. Retrieved 6 April, 2015, from http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1092&context=bildhaan

Goobjoog, N.E.W.S. (2015, 27th February). Puntland and Ethiopia due to form bilateral committee to brush up custom centre agreements. [Weblog]. Retrieved 23 April 2016, from http://goobjoog.com/english/?p=10964

Hersi, A. (2015). Success in the Implementation of the Power-Sharing Models Regarding Management of Intractable Clan Conflict in Somalia. .International Journal of Arts and Project Management, 2(1), 23. Retrieved 5 September, 2016, from http://www.sagepublishers.org/recent-publications-kenya/international-journal-of-arts-and-project-management.html

Hoehne, M.V. (2010). Political representation in Somalia: citizenship, clanism and territoriality. Accord, 1(21), 4, 34,37. Retrieved 5 September, 2015, from http://www.c-r.org/downloads/Accord%2021_10Political%20representation%20in%20Somalia_2010_ENG.pdf

Kazmierczak, M. (N/D). Which Side Are You On? The Study of Algerian and American Biased Mediation. [Weblog]. Retrieved 30 August, 2015, from http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1321435&fileOId=1321436 Kazmierczak, M. (30 August, 2015, N/D). Which Side Are You On? The Study of Algerian and American Biased Mediation. [Weblog]. Retrieved 30 August, 2015, from http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1321435&fileOId=1321436

Kouroutakis, A. (2014). The Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia: Process, Architecture and Perspectives. Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law, 3(4), 1,6. Retrieved 2 September, 2015, from http://joomla.cjicl.org.uk/journal/article/221

Glaser, T. (2005, December 2). Conflict Research Consortium [Scholarly project]. In Building Peace. Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/lede7424.htm

Lijphart, A. (2008, 26th May). Arend Lijphart on Sharing Power in Africa and the Future of Democracy. [Weblog]. Retrieved 11 July, 2016, from http://www.theory-talks.org/2008/05/theory-talk-8.html

Lijphart , A. (1985). Non-Majoritarian Democracy: A Comparison of Federal and Consociational Theories. Oxford Journals, 15(2), 3-15. Retrieved 26 December, 2015, from http://publius.oxfordjournals.org/content/15/2/3.full.pdf+html

Luak, B. (2014). Understanding Federalism. Nyamilpedia. Retrieved 18 November 2015 from http://www.nyamile.com/2014/07/18/the-debate-understanding-federalism-12/

Mason, S. (2009). Center for Security Studies CSS. Retrieved 20 October, 2015, from http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/pdfs/Insider-Mediators.pdf

Menkhaus, K. (April 2007). Mediation efforts in Somalia. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 39. Retrieved 19 August, 2015, from http://www.hdcentre.org/en/resources/publications/filter/ken-menkhaus/

Menkhaus, K. (2010). Somali Peace Processes. Diplomacy in a failed state: International mediation in Somalia, (21), 17, 18. Retrieved 30 August, 2015, from http://www.c-r.org/accord-article/diplomacy-failed-state-international-mediation-somalia

Mohamoud, M. (2015, 14th January). Federalism for Somalia: Internal and External Challenges in the Post-Traditional Period. [Weblog]. Retrieved 22 April 2016, from http://www.somalilandpress.com/federalism-somalia/

Nathan, L. (2008). A Case of Undue Pressure: International Mediation in African Civil Wars. Peace Maker UN. Retrieved 1 September, 2015, from http://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/A%20Case%20of%20Undue%20Pressure_Nathan2008.pdf

Netabay, N. (2007, March, 2007). Bottom-Up Approach: A Viable Strategy in Solving the Somali Conflict. [Weblog]. Retrieved 4 September 2015, from http://www.beyondintractability.org/casestudy/netabay-bottom

Njoku , R. (2013). The history of Somalia. (1 ed.). Retrieved 17 December, 2015, from https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FlL2vE_qRQ8C&pg=PA181&lpg=PA181&dq=history+of+political+power+sharing&source=bl&ots=RocZatVjxA&sig=m-kX2DAj_mm-d_7anSGIHuDwvMc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEgIPIvL_KAhXIQBoKHXcICqY4ChDoAQhAMAU#v=onepage&q=history%20of%20political%20power%20sharing&f=false

Mosley, J. (2015, September, 2015). Somalia’s Federal Future Layered Agendas, Risks and Opportunities. [Weblog]. Retrieved 17 December 2015, from https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/field/field_document/20150902SomaliaFederalFutureMosley.pdf

Papagianni, K. (2007). Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. Retrieved 30 June, 2015, from http://www.hdcentre.org/uploads/tx_news/110PowerSharing-Aconfilctresolutiontool.pdf

Remond, A. (2015, 1st July, 2015). Power-sharing in Africa: Does It Still Have a Role to Play?. [Weblog]. Retrieved 12 December, 2015, from http://www.e-ir.info/2015/07/01/power-sharing-in-africa-does-it-still-have-a-role-to-play/

Sisk, T.D. (2003). Power Sharing. Beyond Interactability. Eds Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/power-sharing

Sisk, T.D. (1996). Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. (1 ed.). Retrieved 2 September, 2015, from https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=uCBtuqnRNu8C&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=mediation+effects+on+power+sharing&ots=tuGOKUupQA&sig=KH704eqZLEF4irU0X7LKaByZKCo#v=onepage&q&f=false

Somalia Newsroom (2015, 23rd October, 2015). (Map) Somalia Discusses Complicated Next Steps for 2016 Elections. [Weblog]. Retrieved 20 January 2016, from http://somalianewsroom.com/2015/10/23/update-somalia-discusses-next-steps-for-2016-elections/

Svensson, I. (2013). Research on Bias in Mediation: Policy Implications. Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs, 2(1), 19. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University. Retrieved 1 September, 2015, from http://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1026&context=jlia

Traniello, M. (2008). UCL London's Global University. Retrieved 14 July, 2015, from https://www.ucl.ac.uk/ippr/journal/downloads/vol3-2/Traniello.pdf

Teshome b , W & Záhořík , J. (2008). Federalism in Africa: The Case of Ethnic-based Federalism in Ethiopia . International Journal of Human Sciences, 5(2), 2,3,6. Retrieved 23 October, 2015, from https://www.academia.edu/4010346/Federalism_in_Africa_The_Case_of_Ethnic-Based_Federalism_in_Ethiopia_Wondwosen_Teshome_and_Jan_Zahorik_

Uluso, M. (2013). Clan federalism tears Somalia apart. Pambazuka News - Pan-African Voices for Freedom and Justice, 1(615), 1. Retrieved 12 December, 2015, from http://www.pambazuka.net/en/category.php/features/86132

University of Texas. (2012). University of Texas Libraries. Retrieved 20 January, 2016, from http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/txu-pclmaps-oclc-795784383-somalia_2012_clan_distro.jpg

Waldo, M. (2010, 9 October, 2010). Federalism In Somalia: Birth of Puntland State and The Lessons Learned. [Weblog]. Retrieved 22 December 2015, from https://horseedmedia.net/2010/10/09/federalism-somalia-birth-puntland-state-lessons-learned/

Zoppi, M. (2013, 22 November, 2013). FEDERALISM: A VALID INSTRUMENT FOR RECONCILIATION IN SOMALIA? . [Weblog]. Retrieved 7 September 2015, from https://www.academia.edu/6341063/Federalism_a_valid_instrument_for_reconciliation_in_Somalia


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.