FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTAINABILITY OF PUBLIC STREET LIGHT DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN KENYA: THE CASE OF NAIROBI COUNTY

EPHANTUS GITONGA NJOKA

Abstract


The main objective of the study was to evaluate factors affecting sustainability of public street light development projects in Nairobi County. This being a case study, a descriptive research design was applied where field surveys were carried out. The study was conducted at the Nairobi County offices and the population of interest was the electrical department. The respondents were all the eight engineers, all the twenty five supervisors and technical employees in the electrical section of engineering department. The population also included contractors and community leaders (administrators). Stratified proportionate random sampling technique was used in coming up with a sample of 174 out of the total population of 319. The study utilized both primary and secondary data. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS), quantitative data was measured in real values by normalizing. The study found that technical longevity and stakeholder involvement/Participation had an influence on sustainability of Public Street light development projects in Nairobi County. The study concluded that technical longevity significantly influenced sustainability of Public street light development projects in Nairobi County. The study further concluded that stakeholder involvement/Participation had a significant effect on sustainability of Public Street light development projects in Nairobi County. The study recommended that management team of Nairobi County Government should consider operation competency when initiating projects of Public street light development. The management team of the Nairobi County should also consider product reliability of the street light since it had a significant effect on the sustainability. The study further recommended that the County Government of Nairobi should form a competent committee comprising all stakeholders with task of determining the project requirements.

Keywords: Technical Longevity, Stakeholder Participation, Sustainability of Public Street Lighting, Nairobi County


Full Text:

PDF

References


Akaki, H. (2009). Sustainable Management of Micro Hydropower Systems for Rural Electrification: The Case of Mt. Kenya Water Catchment Area. Unpublished MBA Thesis, University of Nairobi.

Alexander, L.D. (2015). Successfully Implementing Strategic Decisions, Long Range Planning, Vol. 18 No.3, pp.91-97

Baars, E. (2006). NGO Diplomacy: The Influence of Non-Governmental Organizations in International Environmental Negotiations. MIT Press.

Babbie, E. R. (2004). Survey Research Methods (2nd Edition). Wadsowoth Publishing Company, Belmount, California. 395pp.

Barnes, D.F. (2010). The Challenge of Rural Electrification: Strategies for Developing Countries. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.

Barrett, J & Reardon, L. I. (2006). Between Silence and Light: Spirit in the Architecture of Louis I. Kahn, Shambhala : Random House, Boulder.

Bastakoti, B.P. (2009). Rural Electrification and Efforts to Create Enterprises for the Effective Use of Power. Journal of Applied Energy, 76, 145-155.

Basu, S., Fernald, J. G., & Shapiro, M. D. (2010). Productivity Growth: Technology, Utilization, or Adjustment?. In Carnegie-Rochester conference series on public policy, 55(1),117-165.

Batchelor, P. G., Castellano, A. D., Smith, D. L. & Hill, G. (2012). Measures of Folding Applied to the Development of the Human Fetal Brain, 953-965.

Baumann, R. C. (2005). Radiation-induced Soft Errors in Advanced Semiconductor Technologies. Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on, 5(3), 305-316.

Bhatt, M. R. (1995). Women in Water Management: The Need of Local Planning Development Practice. ILEIA Publisher, Netherlands. 255pp.

Brian, J. E. (2013). Sustainability of Rural Development Projects in Less Developed Countries: The Link Between Project Design and Sustainability. IDM-Mzumbe, Morogoro, Tanzania. 177pp.

Carmona, S. (2008). Financial Planning for Not-for-profit Organizations, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cassen, A. (2009). Does Aid Work? Clarendon Press, Oxford. 46pp.

CCI (2010). Street Lighting Retrofit Projects: Improving Performance while Reducing Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. New York: Clinton Climate Initiative, Clinton Foundation.

Chang, K. J., Juan, C. Y., Lin, K. C., & Juan, C. H. (2010). LED Streetlight Structure. U.S. Patent No. 7,641,363. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) (2014). Energy Efficiency in Buildings, CIBSE Guide F. CIBSE.

Clarke R. V. (2008). Improving Street Lighting to Reduce Crime in Residential Areas, Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Response Guides Series No. 8, Centre for Problem-Oriented Policing, Inc.

Cooper, D. R. & Schindler, P. S. (2003). Business Research Methods. New Delhi: Pricenthall.

Corboy, M. & O‘Corrbui, D. (2009). The Seven Deadly Sins of Strategy. Journal of Management Accounting. 77(10), 22- 59.

Creswell, J. (2012). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. California, United States of America: SAGE Publications Inc.

Davis and Shirtliff Kenya Limited. (2012). Product Manual. Nairobi: Davis & Shirtliff.

DFID (2010). Strategies for Achieving the International Development Target: Making Government Work for Poor People. London: David Fulton Publishers.

Diego, R. & Bart, P. (2008). Participatory Methods of Measuring Monitoring and Evaluation in Agriculture. Ground Up, PELUM Association 1: 26-28.

Dufe, M. E. (2015). Factors Influencing Accessibility Of Rural Electrification In Kenya.

Eade, D. (2008). Capacity Building: An Approach to people-Centred Development. OxFarm, UK. 226pp.

ECO-III, USAID. (2009). Guidelines for Energy Efficient Street Lighting. Retrieved May

Eisenhardt, K. M. (2009). Building Theories From case Study Research. The Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-559.

Enyinda, C., Briggs, C. & Bachkar, K. (2009). Managing risk in Pharmaceutical Global Supply Chain Outsourcing: Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process Model. In ASBBS Annual Conference: LasVegas (Vol. 16).

EPEC, European Public-Private Partnerships Expertise Center. (2013). Public-Private Partnerships. Retrieved from www.eib.org/epec Faull, N. (2004). WHY of Implementing Operations Strategy. POM (pp. 002-0242). Mexico: University of Cape Town.

FAO (1992). Participation in Practice: Lessons from the FAO Peoples Participation Programme. FAO, Rome. 44pp.

Faull, N. (2004). WHY of Implementing Operations Strategy. POM (pp. 002-0242). Mexico: University of Cape Town.

Feeney, P. (2010). Accountable Aid: Local Participation in Major Project. OXFAM GB, Oxford. 24pp.

Fellows, M. R. (2008). Graph Layout Problems Parameterized by Vertex Cover. In Algorithms and Computation (pp. 294-305). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Foster, P. G. & Maghimbi, S. (2010). The Tanzanian Peasantry: Further Studies. Every Publisher, USA. 329pp.

Hager, M. A. (2015). Financial Vulnerability Among Arts Organizations: A Test of the Tuckman-Chang Measures. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 30(2), New Orleans, LA.

Harris, M., & Raviv, A. (2010). Control of Corporate Decisions: Shareholders vs. Management. Review of Financial Studies, 23(11), 4115-4147.

Hart, L. (2004). Creating Involvement: A Handbook of Tools and Techniques for Effective Community Involvement. London: LGMB. 100pp.

ILO (2013). Global Wage Report 2012-13, Wages and Equitable Growth. International Labour Organization, Geneva, 2013. Retrieved on 01.07.13 from http:..www.ilo.org.wcmsp5.groups.public.---dgreports.---dcomm.---publ.documents.publication.wcms_194843.pdf

International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2008). Fiscal Policy as a Countercyclical Tool, Chapter 5 in World Economic Outlook (Washington, October), pp. 159–96.

Jones D. C. (2012). Solar Photovoltaic and Energy Efficient Municipal Street lighting. SE-Solar Co. Ltd. Retrieved from < http://www.sesolarenergy.com > cited on 07 May 2013.

Kenya Power Company (2014). Barriers to Electrification for Under Grid Households in Rural Kenya (No. w20327). National Bureau of Economic Research.

King'ara, N. (2006). Procedural Fairness and the Privatization of Public Services: a case Study of the Street Lighting Contract Between Nairobi City Council and adopt-a- light limited. Unpublished MBA thesis, university of Naorobi.

Koontz, I. H., & O‘Donnell, J. E. (2012). Implanting Strategic Management. Europe: Prentice Hall.

Kothari C, R, (2004). Research methodology, Methods and Techniques. (2nd Revised Edition). New Delhi: New Age International limited.

Kurosaki, A. (2013). The Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technology: An Analytical Framework and Key Issues For Research. Energy Policy, 28, 625-640

Letza, S., & Sun, X. (2012). Corporate Governance: Paradigms, Dilemmas and Beyond. Poznan University Economic Review, 2(1), 43-59.

Magutu, S. T. (2010) Formulation and Implementation of Operations Strategy in the Nairobi City County’s Solid Waste Management. African Journal of Community Development, 1(1), 56-78.

Mandri-Perrott, C. (2012). Connecting Colombia’s Poor to Natural Gas Services: Lessons Learned from a Completed Output-Based Aid Project. OBA Approaches

Mbagaya, G. M. (2009). An Evaluation of Public Private Partnership Framework in Service Delivery, city of Nairobi. African Journal of Community Development, 1(1), 4-18.

McGee, R. & Norton, A. (2001). Participation in poverty reduction strategies. [htt://books.google.com/books] site visited on 18/01/2009. McGraw-Hill.

Michener, C. D. (2008). Community Participation in Development Projects: The World Bank Experience. FAO, Rome. 217pp.

Miniace, R. & Falter, K. (2006). Strategy Development: Past, Present, and Future, Training for Quality, 5(2),58-70.

Mongula, B. (2015). Special Issue on Participatory Development. Tanzania Journal of Development Studies, 6 (1):5-9.

Mugenda M .O & Mugenda G. A. (2003). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press

Mugenda, A. G. (2008). Social science research: Theory and principles. Nairobi: Applied.

Mwangi, H. (2012). Electrification Strategies for Slum Customers. KPLC, Nairobi.

Natasha, A. (2013). The Quest for Financial Sustainability: Foundations in Southeast Asia. Introduction to financing Development in Southeast Asia: Opportunities for Collaboration and Sustainability.

Navigant Consulting, (2011). 2010 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization. U.S. Department of Energy: Building Technologies Program.

New York City Global Partners (2011). Best Practice: Promoting Solar Energy, New York: NYCGB.

Ngechu, M. (2004). Understanding the Research Process and Methods. An Introduction to Research Methods. Nairobi: ACTS.

Nkya, J. E. (1993). Sustainability of Rural Development Projects in Less Developed Countries: The Link Between Project Design and Sustainability. IDM-Mzumbe, Morogoro, Tanzania. 177pp.

NYCGP, N. Y. (2009). Best Practice: LED Street Lighting Energy and Efficiency Program. In http://www.nyc.gov/html/unccp/gprb/downloads/pdf/LA_LEDstreet lights.pdf. Los Angeles: NYCGP.

Oda, H., & Tsujita, Y. (2011). The Determinants of Rural Electrification: the case of Bihar, India. Energy Policy, 39(6), 3086-3095.

Ostrom, E. (2009). Understanding Institutional Diversity. New York: Princeton university press.

Parente, B., J. & Prescott, L. (2011). Understanding Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan Ltd.

Patrick, C. (2014). Construction Project Planning and Scheduling. New Jersey: Pearson, Prentice Hall.

Pauline, M. (2009). Food Projects and How they Work. [htt://www.sustainweb.org/] site visited on 04/03/2016.

REEP (2009). Australia Indonesia Kemitraan Project for Local Government Energy Efficiency. REN21, 2011. Renewables 2011 Global Status Report. REN21 Secretariat, Paris, France. 44.

Renz, C. (2010). Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting Applications, U.S. Department of Energy: Building Technologies Program.

Rukwaro, R. N. (2006). The Education Concept of Low Vision Interventions: The Kenyan Model. Retrieved May, 3, 2009.

Saghir, J. (2005) Energy and Poverty: Myths, Links and Poverty Issues. Technical Report. The World Bank. Energy Working Notes No 4.

Simon, J., & Andre, J. J. (2012). Molecular semiconductors: photoelectrical properties and Solar cells. Springer Science & Business Media.

Sodhi, M. S. & Lee, S. (2007). An Analysis of Sources of Risk in the Consumer Electronics Industry. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 2, 1430-1439.

Solar home (2010), Solar Street Light. cited on 25 May 2013.

Sustainable Business (2012). LED Streetlights Save Baltimore More Than $2 Million Per Year. SustainableBusiness.com, 22.8.12. Retrieved on 17.04.13 from http:..www.sustainablebusiness.com.index.cfm.go.news.display.id.23996

Terry, A. K. (2007). Grassroots Innovations for Survival. ILEIA Newletter for Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture 16 (2), 15-24.

The Climate Group (2012). LED, Lighting the Clean Revolution. The Climate Group, June 2012. Retrieved on 12.02.13 from http:..www.theclimategroup.org.what-we-do.publications.lighting-the-clean-revolution-the-rise-of-leds-and-what-it-means-for-cities.

The Hindu. (2013). Study Moots Solar Street Lights for District. Retrieved May 2014, from http://thehindu.com

The World Bank (2010). Addressing the Electricity Access Gap: Background Paper for the World Bank Group Energy Sector Strategy. World Bank, Washington DC

UN-Habitat (2015). The Economic Role of Cities. UNON Publishing, Nairobi.

Wafula, J. C. (2013). Feasibility Study on Solar Street Lights in Bossaso. Puntland State, Somalia.

Wambugu, F. N. (2014). Formulation and Implementation of Operations Strategy for Energy-Efficient Street Lighting: the case of Nairobi city county. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi.

White, S. C. (2008). The uses and Abuses of Participation. Development in Practice 6 (1): 6-15. American Public Power Association, 2010. 2010-11 Annual Directory and Statistical Report. Clinton Climate Initiative, 2010. Street Lighting Retrofit Projects: Improving Performance while Reducing Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

Zima, M. P. (2010). Formulation and Implementation of Operations Strategies Used in Solid Waste Management: A case Study of City Council of Nairobi. Nairobi: IBIMA Publishing.

Onabanjo, O. O. (2010). Vitamin Profile of Some Standardized Nigerian Composite Dishes. International Journal for vitamin and nutrition research, 80(6), 378 - 398.

Saunders, M. (2012). Choosing Research Participants. Qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges, 35-52.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.