CHALLENGES IN MANAGEMENT OF OLDER PERSONS CASH TRANSFER PROGRAMME IN KENYA. CASE STUDY OF MINISTRY OF LABOUR, SOCIAL SECURITY AND SERVICES
The implementation cash transfer programs depend on country systems. Having sufficient control and accountability mechanisms which in most cases are missing is critical to minimize and manage political risks as well as to ensure effective implementation and sustainability of these programs. The programs face a number of challenges in terms of coverage, fragmentation, coordination, predictability, reliability, transparency and coordination. Further, the programme is vulnerable to error and fraud. For example, it is estimated that around Ksh.3.3 billion or about 3% of the total value of benefit payments is lost through customer error, official error and fraud in roughly equal measure each year. There are notable cases in other developing countries where programmes have failed due to inadequate controls. Within the context of these arguments, the purpose of the study is to establish the challenges in the management of older person’s cash transfer programmes in Kenya with reference to Ministry Of Labour, Social Security and Services. A descriptive research design was used in this study. The target population was 1403 employees of Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Services (Department of Social Development). Stratified proportionate random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The researcher used primary data for this study and was collected using questionnaires. The questionnaire was administered using a drop and pick later method to the sampled respondents. The quantitative data in this research was analyzed by descriptive statistics using statistical package for social sciences version 21. Completeness of qualitative data collected was checked for and cleaned ready for data analysis. Content analysis was used in processing of this data and results presented in prose form. In addition, a multivariate regression model was applied to determine the relative importance of each of the five variables with respect to successful cash transfer projects. Data was presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study found out that infrastructure/ implementing tools, government financing and donor funding affect the management of older persons’ cash transfer to a great extent. The study also found out that factors of staff capacity including staff competency, administrative capacity to carry out targeting (and payment), training strategies and communication strategies affect the management of older persons cash transfer programmes in Kenya to a great extent. The study concluded that that infrastructure/ implementing tools, government financing and donor funding affect the management of older persons’ cash transfer programmes in Kenya. The recommended that the government should increase the funding of older persons’ cash transfer programs to avoid delays in the program because of relying on donor funding. The study also recommended that institutions should engage in training of staff to increase competency and ensure there is administrative capacity to carry out targeting and paying of the older persons’ cash transfer programs. Another study should be carried out to determine the factors affecting the management of older person’s cash transfer programmes in Kenya.
Key Words: Cash Transfer, Sustainability
Andre, G. (2004). Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa/ Oportunidades, Mexico’s Conditional Transfer Programme. Social Policy and Administration. 40 No. 4, 425-449.
Anthony, C. and Govindarajan, V. (2007). Progresa and Its Impacts on the Welfare of Rural Households in Mexico. Research Report 139, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C.
Argyris, Z. (1964). Evaluating the Impact of Brazil’s Bolsa Familia: Cash Transfer Programs in Comparative Perspective. Latin American Research Review 45 No. 2, 173-190.
Babbie, E. (2010). Survey research methods (2nd ed.). Belmont: Wodsworth.
Bankable Frontier Associates, (2006). Learning from Foreign Models in Latin American Policy Reform. Washington, D.C: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
Barrientos, A. and Claudio, S. (2009). Social Policy for Poverty Reduction in Lower-income Countries in Latin America: Lessons and Challenges. Social Policy and Administration 43 ( 4), 409-424.
Blair, B. (2012). Conditionality in public cash transfers targeted on the poor. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Brewin, G. (2008). Women Beneficiaries or Women Bearing the Cost? A Gendered Analysis of the Red de Protección Social in Nicaragua. Development and Change 39 No. 5, 823-844
Camnar, N., Pulver, D. and Sjoblom, T. (2009). Country on a Cash Transfer Programme by End of 2012?, Working Paper, New York: UNICEF.
Chandran, E. (2004). Research Methods. Nairobi: Starbright services limited.
Clarkson, F. (1994). Honduras: El Programa de Asignación Familiar. In Ernesto Cohen and Rolando Franco eds., Transferencias con corresponsabilidad una Mirada latinoamericana. Mexico D.F. FLACSO, 284-320.
Cohen, J., West, S. G., and Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cooper, D., and Schindler, P.S. (2003). Business research methods (8th ed). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. India.
De Brauw, A. and Hoddinott, J. (2010). Must Conditional Cash Transfer Programs be Conditional to be Effective? The Impact of Conditioning Transfers on School Enrollment in Mexico. Journal of Development Economics. Corrected Proof.
Deaton, A. and Paxson, C. (2011). Poverty among Older persons and the Elderly in Developing Countries. Mimeo, Princeton: Research Program in Development Studies, Princeton University.
Devereaux, C. and Sebates-Wheeler, T. (2004). Conceptualizing the Politics of Social Protection in Africa, University of Manchester, October 2007.
Donaldson, G. and Davis, C. (1991). The impact of conditional cash transfer programmes on elderly peoplenutrition: a review of evidence using a programme theory framework. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ellis, F. (2008). We Are All Poor Here: Economic difference, Social Divisiveness, and Targeting Cash Transfers in Sub Sahara Africa. Paper presented at the conference on “Social Protection for the Poorest in Africa: Learning from Experience, held in Kampala, Uganda, 8-10 September 2008.
Faur, E. (2008). The ‘Care Diamond’: Social Policy Regime, Care Politics and Programs in Argentina. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development Report 3.
Fisher, F., Gaarder, M. M., Glassman, A., and Todd, J. E. (2012). Conditional cash transfers and health: unpacking the causal chain. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 2:1, 6-50.
Government of Kenya (2003). Kenya’s Vision 2030. Government Printer.
Government of Kenya (2009). The old persons cash transfer Programme operations manual. Nairobi, Kenya: Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development in cooperation with Help Age International.
Government of Kenya (2013). The Constitution of Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printers.
Government of Kenya (2013). Cash transfer program.
Hanlon, J., Barrientos, A. and Hulme, D. (2010). Just Give Money to the Poor: The Development Revolution from the Global South. Sterling: Kumarian Press.
Help Age International. (2011). Strengthening state-citizen relations in fragile contexts: The role of cash transfers. HelpAge International.
Hollingsworth, V. and Lindberg, S. (1985). Strengthening state-citizen relations in fragile contexts: The role of cash transfers. HelpAge International.
Holzmann, R. and Hinz, R. (2005). Old-Age Income Support in the Twentyfirst Century: An International Perspective on Pension Systems and Reform. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Hunter, W. and Sugiyama, N.B. (2009). Building Citizenship or Reinforcing Clientelism?: Contributions of the Bolsa Familia in Brazil. Paper prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 3-6, Toronto.
Johannsen, J. (2009). Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America: Problems and Opportunities. Manila: Inter-American Development Bank.
Jones, N., Ahadzie, W. and Doh, D. (2009). Social protection and older persons: opportunities and challenges in Ghana. London, and UNICEF, Accra: Overseas Development Institute.
Kopp, G. and Leyk, H. (2004). Old-Age Income Support in the Twentyfirst Century: An International Perspective on Pension Systems and Reform. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited Publishers
Lanjouw, P., Milanovic, B. and Paternostro, S. (2012). Poverty and economic transition: How do changes in economies of scale affect poverty rates of different households? Working Paper, Washington DC: The World Bank.
Lawler, B. (1986). Social protection pathways: shaping social justice outcomes for the most marginalised, now and post-2015. London: ODI (forthcoming) Leroy, J. L., Ruel, M., and Verhofstadt,
Mayer, F., Lindert, K., Anja L., Jason H., and Bénédicte, B. (1992). Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America: Problems and Opportunities. Manila: Inter-American Development Bank.
Minujin, A., Alejandra, D. and Enrique, D. (2007). El Boom de las Transferencias de Dinero Sujetas a Condiciones. ¿De qué Manera Estos Programas Sociales Benefician a los Niños y Niñas Latinoamericanos? Salud Colectiva 3 ( 2), 121-131.
Mugenda, O. M. (2008). Effect of participation of African women in decision making in selected institutions of higher learning in Kenya. Unpublished Research Project.
Mugenda, O. M., and Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
National Household Budget Survey (2005/2006)
Ngechu. M. (2004). Understanding the research process and methods. An introduction to research methods. Acts Press, Nairobi.
Oso, B. (2009). The Survey Research Handbook, 2nd ed.Chicago, Irwin.
Porter, B. (1992). The Nuts and Bolts of Brazil’s Bolsa Família Program: Implementing Conditional Cash Transfers in a Decentralized Context. Discussion Paper 0709, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Saunders, M, Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A, (2007). Research Methods for Business Students, Upper Saddle River, NY: Prentice Hall
Schubert, N. (2010). Evaluation: A Systematic Approach. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Schuring, E. (2007). Impact Evaluation Design, Cash Transfer Pilot in Zambia: Concept Note. A collaborative project implemented by GTZ, MASDAR and CARE with support from GTZ, The World Bank and DFID Zambia. 22 March. Available at http://german-practice-collection.org/en/download-centre/doc_download/514-Cash-Transfer-Pilot
Simmons, B., Frank D., and Garrett, G. (2008). The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Somekh, B. and Cathy, L. (2005). Research Methods in the Social Sciences. London: Sage publications Inc
Sugiyama, N. B. (2010). Diffusion of Good Government: Social Sector Reforms in Brazil. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.
Teichman, J. (2007). Redistributive Conflict and Social Policy in Latin America. World Development 36 (3), 446-460.
Turnbull, M. (1994). The impact of cash transfers on nutrition in emergency and transitional contexts: A review of evidence. London: ODI. Retrieved from: www.odi.org.uk/resources/docs/7596.pdf
Turner, S., Devereux, S., Ellis, F., Freeland, N., Ntseane, D., Seeley, J., Seleka, T. and White, P., (2010). A Social Development Policy Framework for Botswana. Phase II: Framework and Strategy. Ministry of Local Government, UNICEF and RHVP, Gaborone: Botswana.
UNICEF Kenya, Kenyas Cash Transfer Programme for orphans and vulnerable older persons, PowerPoint presentation, UNICEF Kenya, undated.
Walton, M. (1985). Social Transfers and Growth: What Do We Know? What Do We Need to Find Out? World Development, Volume 40, Issue 1, 11-20.
Weyland, K. (2006). Bounded Rationality and Policy Diffusion: Social Sector Reform in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
World Bank, (2004). Cash-Transfer Programming in Emergencies: A Practical Guide, 2004, http://publications. WorldBank.org.uk/add_info_024.asp.
- There are currently no refbacks.